Perhaps the French paradox and the secret of red wine in cardiovascular disease is that red wine prevents cavities. A review of the literature in 2013 shows at least a moderate association of cavities and periodontal disease to coronary artery disease. With up to 90% of the worlds population affected by Cavities, and periodontal disease, this may be one of the associations that can be used to prevent heart disease. With regard to cavities and periodontal disease, the prevailing thought is that certain bacteria in the mouth bind together to form biofilms, which are communities of bacteria that are difficult to kill. This leads to plaque which produces acid which in turn damages teeth. A 2014 study in the American Chemical Society’s Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry by M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas took biofilms and placed them in different liquids, including red wine, red wine without the alcohol, red wine spiked with grape seed extract, and water and 12 percent ethanol for comparison. Red wine with or without alcohol and wine with grape seed extract were the most effective at killing the bacteria and breaking down the biofilms.
The antimicrobial effects of red wine and its inherent components on oral microbiota were studied by using a 5-species biofilm model of the supragingival plaque that includes Actinomyces oris, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella dispar. Microbiological analysis (CFU counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy) of the biofilms after the application of red wine, dealcoholized red wine, and red wine extract solutions spiked or not with grape seed and inactive dry yeast extracts showed that the solutions spiked with seed extract were effective against F. nucleatum, S. oralis and A. oris. Also, red wine and dealcoholized wine had an antimicrobial effect against F. nucleatum and S. oralis. Additional experiments showed almost complete and early degradation of flavan-3-ol precursors [(+)-catechin and procyanidin B2] when incubating biofilms with the red wine extract.